News: has a Community Board and Customer Support System. Submit a ticket at

Author Topic: Panel Buckling with (EL) Effective Laminates  (Read 5873 times)


  • *
  • Posts: 42
Panel Buckling with (EL) Effective Laminates
« on: August 21, 2009, 01:53:39 PM »
Hypersizer V5.7

Effective laminates are used in preliminary sizing (% 0 / % 45 / % 90). The simplified laminate definition is adequate for the lamina or laminate in plane analysis, but for buckling analysis perhaps the EL assumption can only be assumed a preliminary buckling analysis.

Buckling of a laminate is based of four stiffness parameters


The D12 term can not be determined unless we have a discrete laminate (DL), or actual ply orientation and stacking sequence. Buckling of graphite skin panels actually benefit from +45/-45 deg plies on the outer surface, which is some what counter intuitive. Also, good for damage tolerance.

What is the assumed D12 term in Hypersizer when a user conducts a buckling analysis of a panel using Effective Laminates (EL)?
David Johnson
Hitech Global Solutions Inc


  • Administrator
  • *****
  • Posts: 218
    • HyperSizer Structural Sizing Software
Re: Panel Buckling with (EL) Effective Laminates
« Reply #1 on: May 27, 2010, 04:39:15 PM »
Agreed that sizing of effective laminates is only considered to be preliminary...   There are many reasons why EL sizing is insufficient to capture all of the nuances of sizing composites.  They are really only intended to get you in the right ballpark.

Each EL does have an "accurate" laminate representation of E1, E2 and nu12 in its definition based on a smeared laminate, therefore, it is conceivable to calculate a D12 from the smeared laminate.  This will not be the same D12 that you would get from a discrete laminate unless the plies are very evenly distributed.

By the way, this limitation is not just restricted to D12... in fact it is true for all of the D terms.  For example, lets say you have a quasi-isotropic laminate, but the 0s are all on the outside and the 90s are in the middle.  If you calculate D11 and D22 for this laminate, you would see that D11 > D22.  However, if you put all of the 90s on the outside, you will see D22 > D11.   If using an EL, you will not see this, you will only see that D11=D22, because the discrete nature has been lost and you are seeing a smeared representation of the laminate.