Version History Detail
Collier Research is actively improving and adding to the HyperSizer code base. Updates are released regularly and are free to all customers that are current on Maintenance, Support and Upgrades (MSU).
The current release of HyperSizer is Version 7.1.43. To download the current version please Contact Us.
Released 2015 July
Major New Capabilities
FEM Import - Materials
- Materials (MAT1, MAT8, etc.) can now be imported directly from the FEM.
- User intervention is typically required to supplement the FEM material data with allowables required for failure analysis.
- Material data can be exported and imported in a new Excel format for rapid editing of multiple materials.
- Composite laminate families can be imported from a spreadsheet and used for detailed sizing and global ply sequencing. See Laminate Families.
FEM Update - Nastran
- Small field format is now used for CBAR, PBAR, PBARL, PROD, PSHEAR, and PSHELL entries.
- New option "Export PBAR beam properties only." Supports all solvers.
New streamlined, object-oriented library configuration
- The API is distributed as a header-only library located in a single include directory.
- Upgrading plugin version now only requires changing the main include folder name.
- Users implement the PluginPackageBase and ConfigurationBase interfaces. External DLL calls are not exposed.
- Fortran support has been removed in favor of C++ for API design and usability reasons. Users can still link to existing Fortran code using dynamic or static libraries.
- The default plugin directory is now blank instead of the HyperSizer program files directory.
Section Cut Properties
- Cross-section stiffness and moment of inertia properties can be extracted at user-defined section cut planes. See Section Cut Properties.
- Supports multiple solid elements through-the-thickness of the sandwich stack.
- Orientation vectors may be defined with cylindrical coordinate systems.
Rapid Sizing and Set Variables
- Solid laminates and honeycomb sandwich concepts supported.
- Interlaminar Tension - New ply-based interlaminar tension strength analysis is available for monolithic laminate concepts. See Material Strength, Composite, Ply-Based.
- Puck - New backdoor flag has been added to remove the IFF correction factor - "Puck include IFF correction for parallel-to-fiber stress".
- Margin Details
- Added - Beam Buckling, Beam Flexural-Torsional Buckling, IDT Crippling, Johnson-Euler, Panel Buckling
- Enhanced - Element ID and element loads added for strength and sandwich analyses.
- Enhanced - Postbuckling details added to crippling, column buckling, and metallic strength.
FEA Load Extraction - Peak Element
- A variation of the Peak Element load extraction method has been added, "Peak Element - All Load Cases".
- The old Peak Element load extraction method has been renamed to "Peak Element - Metric Filter".
- "Peak Element - All Load Cases" stores peak element loads for all load cases. All load cases are analyzed. This is recommended as an alternative to the N-sigma method for final analysis - especially for (smeared) components with many elements.
- "Peak Element - Metric Filter" stores only the max peak element load across all load cases. This acts as a load case filter - only a subset of the load cases are analyzed which saves computation time.
Load Case Management
A number of enhancements have been made to make managing projects with many load cases easier.
- When importing run decks, it is now possible to have the same subcase ID referenced in multiple run decks. Each of these subcases will be imported as unique load sets.
- Load sets can be now be renamed using any desired convention.
- Load cases (combinations of load sets) can now be renamed. The default load case name is now the load set(s) name.
- Load cases can now be marked as both static and fatigue.
- Load set and load case data can be exported and imported using an Excel spreadsheet (*.xlsx). See the Tools drop-down menu in the Load Set/Case dialog respectively.
- Abaqus - Step names are now imported as load set names. There is no more need to add integers to the step name.
- Multiple database templates can be registered on single machine using the Database Template Manager (Tools | Manage Templates).
- Database templates can be created from existing databases using File | Save As Template.
- Database templates from previous versions can be easily updated using File | Upgrade Database.
- Modal displacements for buckling and frequency FEA solutions can be viewed for all modes.
- New algorithm for buckling constraints. The severity of the mode is computed per component in order to bias stiffness factors towards components that are participating in the mode shape. See Buckling Constraints.
- Frequency constraints added. See Frequency Constraints.
FEM Import - Nastran
- Nastran bulk data parsing performance has been improved by approximately 10x. This number only includes the portion of the FEM import process where the bulk data files are being read.
- Bulk data errors like missing grids and coordinate systems are bundled up and reported to the user in an HTML report. Processed error conditions include:
- Missing grids associated with beams, shells, bolts, and solids.
- Missing coordinate systems.
- Missing include files.
- Beam and shell elements that share property IDs.
- Duplicate grid, element, material, property, and coordinate system IDs.
- Free format entries are now supported (comma separated).
- Mixed format entries are supported (i.e. PCOMP with first line in large format and ply lines small in format).
FEM Import Filter Files
- Users can exclude elements from importing into HyperSizer using a text file that lists the relevant element and/or property IDs. See About FEM Filter Files.
- This feature enables user import a submodel without manually carving out the elements and grid from the main model.
- Model setup performance has been enhanced due to internal improvements in assigning analysis selections to components. Large models should see approximately a 3x speed up for operations that assign concepts to components - such as FEM import and structure import.
- Eliminated large delays in Run Decks form when modifying projects with many run decks.
- New pressure and temperature import options: "None", "All", or "First Run Deck Only". Default is "None". See FEM Interface Options.
Upgrading Databases to a New Version
- A new process has been implemented to upgrade old databases without doing a full project import. To use the new process simply attempt to open the old database or use File | Upgrade Database.
- Explicitly upgrading the database is orders of magnitude faster than the old method of creating an new database and manually importing all of the projects.
Released 2014 June
V7 software is much easier to learn. Less user-documentation and training is required. Wizards will guide you from one setup step to the next. Analysis and sizing optimization workflow processes have been streamlined with less user steps.
Help documentation and tutorials are included with software installs and on our website at http://hypersizer.com/help.
HyperSizer V7 has been redesigned to meet the primary goals:
- More intuitive and successful use within hours of first introduction, (which also makes you immediately capable of picking it up again after extended non use)
- Handling larger FEMs with discretely meshed stiffeners, thousands of load cases, thousands of optimization zones - real working production models
- Providing in depth analysis detail data for all failure methods, load cases, and areas on your structure
Major New Capabilities
Intuitive User Interface
- Interactive welcome screen showing recent databases and available options on start up.
- Hidden dropdowns and toolbars replaced with intuitive ribbons
- Desired software capability easy to find
- Clicking input fields activates applicable ribbons (e.g. clicking a laminate activates the Laminate ribbon)
- Dimensions tab
- All dimensions for cross-section now visible in a single display
- Clear descriptive image of cross-section including dimensions
- Reporting of ply percentages and ply counts
- Design data export and import with Excel spreadsheets (final analysis mode only)
- Specific workflow modes
- Rapid Sizing, Detailed Sizing, Final Analysis
- For each mode, non-relevant data is hidden (ex: for final analysis mode, only design dimensions shown, no min/max variable ranges displayed)
- Material Modes
- User selects material mode for composite or metallic design
- Non-relevant data is not displayed. For example selecting Metallic mode hides all composite related data (ply counts, etc.)
- Tooling rules
- Cross-sectional linking
- Limits on panel height and/or stringer spacing
- Ability to size to panel height, stringer height or web height
- New Design Criteria Form
- Enables high level decisions including tooling rules, layup rules (min/max ply percentages), repair rules, etc.
- Completely re-designed Sequencing and Blending forms
- Sequence laminates over multiple components
- Modify sequenced designs by turning on/off plies, removing plies, shuffling or extending plies to maximize coverage
- Export to CATIA or FiberSim Excel format. Make edits and reimport.
- Expanded context-sensitive help documentation included in software and online.
- Easier navigation between forms
- New entity "Display Sets" for grouping arbitrary sets of components together
- Allows for sizing/analysis of any part or all components of a project
- Easily assign almost any data items to arbitrary sections of a model
Streamlined Workflow Process
- Streamlined workflow is provided by the reorganization of the entire v6.4 data content and interface into a more efficient V7 data content and interface implemented with the Ribbon
- Wizards guide users through project set up
- Never leaves the user guessing what to do next - completion of each wizard dialog guides user to the next step
- Guides user through project creation, load case factors, units, and FEM import
- Assembly creation, selection of material modes (composite, metallic), analysis or sizing
- Reviews model for correct normals and material angles
- Generates discretely stiffened stringer segments
- Concept selection
- Material and cross-sectional dimension assignment
- Import materials and dimensions from Excel "geometry database" spreadsheet
- Improved effective laminate -> discrete laminate process
- Select ply materials for assembly and follow left to right process for EL creation, Blending, DL creation, Sequencing, visualization in FEM Viewer
- FEM Update process
- Using the "Update FEM" option ("Update Nastran" or "Update Abaqus" or "Update ANSYS") from the software will now create a complete copy of original FEM with updated materials and properties
- Seeks to preserve the original structure of the FEM as much as possible
- "Include" file structure is preserved in the new copy
- Original order for materials and properties is preserved. Materials and properties are updated in place rather than appended to the end or in new include files.
- Updated FEM can be used in original project or used to create a new HyperSizer project
- Original run decks are never modified by HyperSizer
Improved Optimization and Analysis
- Many performance improvements
- Improved memory performance for large models with thousands of load cases
- Significant reduction in memory usage (up to 2.5X memory reduction for large models)
- 64 bit analysis code (addresses 2GB memory limit in v6.4)
- Significant speed up 4x of fundamental analyses
- Pre-analysis "group validation" stage has been reprogramed no longer causing slow downs for large models
- Many operations in graphics and sizing form optimized so working with large models is easier
- Faster laminate sequencing including support for 64 bit and parallel processing to take advantage of multiple processors
- Automatically create panel segments for large models
- Load Cases
- No limit on number of load cases.
- No limit on number of run-decks.
- Easy to use interface that automatically scans FEM folder to include hundreds of potential run-decks
- Combined load cases
- Combine any combination of multiple mechanical and thermal loads with scalar factors into a single load case (similar to Nastran SUBCOM)
Discrete Stiffener Modeling
- Includes different thicknesses for left and right skin segments
- Unique Margin of Safety and Analysis Detail reporting for left and right skin segments and stringer segments. Previously skin margins were reported with stringer segments.
- Support for OML reference plane for skin segments (previous versions calculated over-conservative margins if skin segment reference planes were not set to midplane).
- Calculates curvature of stringer segments from curvature of left and right skins.
- Unit weights of stringer segments now shows both weight of stringer only as well as unit weight of stringer plus associated skins (panel segment weights).
- Terminology change:
- Panel Segment Components are now Stringer Segments
- Skin Components are now Skin Segments
Stress report engine rewritten using Office OpenXML technology. Stress reports now generate around 5x faster.
- Word and Excel Stress Reports enhanced and re-ordered to be more logical. Non-applicable items no longer included to reduce user confusion.
- More standardized headers and footers added to Word reports including support for company logos.
- Ability to include CAD and FEM images in reports.
- Analysis Detail Reporting
- Analysis Detail spreadsheet reporting all final and intermediate values required to calculate margins of safety by hand (For example, for local buckling analysis, includes spans, material stiffnesses, buckling coefficients, etc.)
- Reports analysis details for up to 20 critical load cases per analysis per component, not only the lowest margin.
- Analysis details also available in the FEM Viewer to view intermediate data for each analysis method on the model.
Peak Element and Filtered Load Processing
Element Peak Loads - New method of pulling FEA loads
- Designed to quickly filter out non-critical load cases for rapid sizing
- Determines critical element and load case for a series of metrics
- Tensile Nx, Compression Nx, Interaction (Nx2+Ny2), shear, etc.
- Unique metrics for stiffened structures vs unstiffened
- 47 different metrics included
- Allows rapid sizing of structure with thousands of load cases
- Filtered Loads
- Sizing or analyzing structure creates a filter containing only relevant load cases
- The number of filtered cases is user-configurable
- Subsequent sizing can be limited to only consider filtered load cases (speeds sizing substantially)
- Stress reports contain a detailed breakdown of relevant load cases for the overall structure and per component
- Completely re-designed plugin interface
- Plugin DLL (Hs_UDef.DLL) can be installed at any location on user's system. Plugin location can be changed from database to database. This means that different users or projects can point to different sets of analysis plugins
- Plugins have access to most data available to each structural concept (material properties, layups, dimensions, stresses, spans, ABD matrices, etc.)
- Supports Fortran or C++ development
- Includes plugin versioning; warning users of out-of-date plugins
- Includes support for SI vs English units
- Stress Reports
- Plugin developers can now generate their own stress reports by filling out Detail data for each Analysis Result
- More details found here: http://hypersizer.com/help/#Udef/udef-release_notes.php
- Many new variables and capabilities exposed
- Concept selections are now exposed per group or per assembly
- Object hierarchy has been simplified. Instead of Project-Group-Component, it is now Project-Group and Project-Component. This greatly reduces the complexity of the code
- Collection class methods have been simplified
- Project.GetProject(projectName) instead of Project.Item(projectName)
- Group.GetGroup(groupId) instead of Group.Key(strGroupId)
- Support for turning on and off and extracting individual margins of safety
- Various fixes to support MATLAB and Python - array handling, converting properties with arguments to methods, etc.
- More details: http://hypersizer.com/help/#COM/com-release_notes.php
Structure Map Capability
- Structure maps associate analysis components to design entities on the structure
- HyperSizer components and associated FEM properties are directly linked to locations such as a fuselage stringer X between ringframes Y and Z
- Structure Maps allow users to leverage the element numbering convention of the global FEM to:
- Create skin and stringer segments dramatically reducing the amount of setup required for discretely meshed models
- Structure maps allow users to interface with Knowledge Based Engineering (KBE) spreadsheets which are typically organized by bay and stringer location on structure
- Includes support for other entities such as frames, floor beams, spars, ribs, etc
- Structure maps also enable 2D Excel Spreadsheet to
- Report summary data in a grid of colored cells representing data for stringers and bays
- Report margins of safety, controlling failure mode and load case, dimensions, materials in the grid
- User can control color palette for each data item (custom colors, gradients, etc.)
- Replacement for V6 "Store Group Design…" and "Store Component Design…" options
- Assembly and component designs all stored and applied from a single template
- Store all settings including:
- Panel concepts
- Sizing bounds
- Material selections
- Active failure criteria
- Design criteria
- Fabrication criteria (quick sizing)
- All component settings on sizing form
- Local crippling analysis
- Object stresses reported on Stresses tab
- Object laminates analyzed from the stresses tab will now show only relevant plies (previously would show all plies for HyperLaminates rather than only active plies)
- Stock sizes for metallic, honeycomb and foam materials stored per material
- Ability to turn on/off component IDs in legend. Makes legend view less verbose
- Improvements to memory and better performance for large models
- Using more standard HTML format rather than old Microsoft Help format
- Easier to search, copy and paste, etc.
- Same look and feel whether looking at local help or online help
- Beam Export
- The beam unit weight is now printed to the MAT1 entry (instead of the NSM entry of the PBAR/PBARL). See Beam Export
- Metallic beams will now reference the native isotropic MAT1 entry instead of generating a unique MAT1 for each beam
- Shell Export
- Average stiffness properties used when computing the ABD for FEM export
- Fully effective ABD properties are always exported
- Support for PSHELL-MAT1 format in Nastran for metallic shells (only if offset is zero). See Continuous Shell Export
- Shell Import
- Abaqus import of continuous shell materials and thicknesses
- Removed 5 digit FEM MATID
- Automatically split non-contiguous elements into separate components
Released 2013 May
Major New Capabilities
Improved Analysis Engine
- All analytical and numerical failure analyses are 200 to 400% faster than previous 6.4 versions (in essence, the entire work flow process)
- Laminate sequencing operations are 300 to 400% faster than previous 6.4 versions. Will also take advantage of multiple cores and more memory on 64 bit computers if available.
Rewritten FEA Import interface, primarily to support large FEM and FEA results data files
- Improved multiple run deck support
- Much easier to select and specify multiple run decks. User can specify many run decks at once rather than selecting them one at a time.
- Selecting multiple FEM files (.bdf, .inp, etc) automatically selects FEA Loads Files (.op2, .odb, etc.)
- Removed limitation on number of run decks (previous versions were limited to 20)
- Load Sets and Load Cases are automatically processed as run decks are added and removed.
- General Load Case creation
- Select one or many load sets with multipliers to superimpose into a single load case (similar to Nastran SUBCOM capability)
- Added new FEA Load Extraction Method, "Peak Element"
- Useful for projects that have many load cases. Filters out from the hundreds or thousands of the critical load cases based on their magnitudes and not on any failure mode analyses.
- New HME added describing all FEA Load Extraction methods
Quick Sizing and Variable Tuning
- This version has a new capability to optimize a thousand times faster than previous versions, based on an entirely new approach. Currently implemented for composite stiffened panels such as I and Tee shaped, you will be able to produce mature design results very rapidly. Intended for vehicle level system design trade studies, users will be able to perform very accurate structural sizing for weight estimation and cost estimations based on producibility trades for a large design space including the effects of architectural layouts and topology. V7 released later this year will include other stiffened panel shapes, solid laminate and sandwich panels, and also metallic materials.
- Quick sizing rapidly produces optimum weight structures, based on FEA model load distribution, that includes all cross sectional dimensions and composite material ply counts (effective laminate thickness)
- Variable tuning starts from Quick Sizing and produces optimal laminate stacks and transitions to fully defined sequenced ply coverages for fabrication and export to CATIA
- This new work flow process automatically generates optimization bounds and laminates including stiffener hyperlaminates with ply continuity between web and flange objects and ability to add cap charges, web ply packs, etc.
- Interactive visualization of skin and stiffener cross-section with individual ply layers displayed and identified for CAD system
- See Interactive YouTube videos
Improved support for Catia CPD
- Export of Catia "thickness law" and "virtual ply" data for import directly into Catia
- Sequencing and export for stiffener as well as skin laminates
Interactive Graphics cross-section visualization and property calculation
- Create a cut plane by dragging mouse across model to display a cut section of individual ply layers
- Cross-section display including global ply visualization
- Calculates mass, area and inertial moments of inertia, shear center, etc.
- Cost per unit weight factor added to all materials (e.g. $/lb)
- Material mass and cost spreadsheet export
- Sizing based on minimum weight, minimum cost or somewhere in between
Metallic fatigue failure mode
- Added support for fatigue-only load cases (load cases only used in fatigue analysis)
- Added custom fatigue Kt stress concentration factor
- Documentation included in Isotropic strength analysis HME and stress reports
- New user interface to define FEA constraints
- New FEA constraint: static moment. If static moment is exceeded, stiffness is shifted away from the center of mass.
- Iterations can be cancelled at any point (including sizing). Cancellation will not erase existing iterations.
- Temporary iteration reports: margins of safety, controlling failure modes, required stiffnesses, and FEA constraint data.
- Support for custom FEA solver configurations without modifying batch files.
Laminate Sequencing improvements
- Several fixes several problems where global plies were not properly identified
- Added support for sequencing of panel segment skins and stiffeners in Discrete Stiffener Modeling
- Added a "shuffle" method where plies are moved up or down the laminate stacking sequence to maximize coverage of continuous global plies.
- Additional speed improvements
Redesigned user defined analysis (plugins) capability
- Plugins are now much more general with all panel and beam dimensions, material properties, ABD matrices, and loads including ply by ply stresses and strains exposed through the API interface.
- User can identify failure category (strength, panel buckling, local buckling, etc) for each method
- All new documentation and tutorials for C++ and Fortran as well as a full API reference.
- Sample source code downloadable within the help system.
HyperExpert™ automatic creation of discrete finite element models for aircraft fuselage
- See interactive YouTube videos
Improved method of analyzing Effective Laminates
- Failure analysis of effective laminates is now accomplished by creating virtual plies in each direction (0/45/-45/90) at the outer fiber of each effective laminate object and then running ply-by-ply analysis on each ply. This gives much closer strength margins between effective laminates and a corresponding discrete laminate, especially for combined biaxial and shear loads
FEA loads are automatically imported when model is imported.
- Loads can now be viewed in FEM Graphics before any analysis is performed.
- True IML and OML reference plane (rather than midplane of upper or lower facesheet) selection is now available for unstiffened or sandwich panels.
- IML and OML offsets are detected in FEM import
- Added support for SOL 112 (Modal Transient) - reads loads from final load state as design-to loads
- Laminate import supported. Abaqus ply material name must match a HyperSizer material name.
- Elsets are imported as HyperSizer assemblies
- B32 elements supported
- DAT file not longer necessary for import
- Step names now required to end in integer ID for load set import
- ANSYS components are imported as HyperSizer assemblies
Discrete Stiffener Modeling
- Automatic creation of panel segments now supported for DSM Techniques 2 and 3
- Additional speed improvements
- Fixed inconsistent weight reporting of stiffeners and skins on Project Summary tab
- Fixed long delay/memory issue when analyzing a DSM model with many panel segments
- Fixed inconsistent sizing of DSM skins
- Wrong skin candidate would sometimes be chosen while sizing
- Freeze design not working properly for skin
- Added automatic "ply drop transition" zone detection for smeared and all discrete stiffener model techniques
- Ply drop transitions are generated in axial and transverse directions for skin objects, however only in stiffener direction for stiffener objects
- Added support for sequencing of HyperLaminates between bays (web of one bay will sequence with web of adjacent bay). Supported for discrete as well as smeared stiffener finite element models.
- FEA Statistical Loading Methods
- Improved handling of shear (Nxy, Qx, Qy) loads so that + and- shear loads are treated equally. Highest shear load magnitude is always used.
- Added new Vinson honeycomb panel wrinkling method (Ref)
- Documentation included in updated HMEs and Stress reports
Released 2012 June
- Fixed long delay problem with opening database on Windows 7
- Fixed Geometry Rule 42 (min/max require slenderness ratio for uniaxial panels)
- Improved accuracy of skin and stiffener local buckling for grid stiffened concepts (isogrid and orthogrid) - verification of local buckling against over 100 discrete finite element models representing various aspect ratios and material stiffness combinations
- Fixed minor calculation problems for flatwise tension calculation when the component radius of curvature is very low compared to sandwich thickness
Discrete Stiffener Modeling
- Fixed application error caused when all panel segments were removed from assembly
- Local postbuckled skin properties now written out to iteration fem with reduced properties
- Fixed auto-calculation of panel segments when every stiffener bay is assigned to a different FEM property.
- Fixed auto-calculation of panel segments for DSM Type 2 when there is one skin spanning multiple bays.
- Fixed error when generating DLs for many components simultaneously
- Fixed English vs SI unit display on composite form
FEM Model Import
- Fixed miscellaneous import bugs and problems with Abaqus and Ansys FEM iteration
- Fixed several problems with import of models with solid elements representing honeycomb core when the grids for the solid elements were in an alternate coordinate system or were in non-english units
- Fixed FEM export problem with beam orientations
- Deflection units now match display units for project
- Include files removed. All properties and materials now contained in a single iteration FEM file.
- Fixed bug with tip deflection criteria.
- Fixed problem with HyperFEA if HyperSizer project folder changed to alternate drive.
- Fixed several problems that caused instability in object model code for long running problems.
Released 2012 May
Major New Capabilities
See PPT: 9103_HyperSizer-Whats_New-Version_6.2 (ja) 2012-04-12.pdf
(File Size 2.7 MB)
- Discrete Stiffener Modeling (DSM)
- Many discrete modeling techniques are supported for uniaxial stiffened and hat stiffened panels
- ANSYS FEA integration. Fully supported by HyperSizer and HyperFEA.
- Update FEM feature exports a new FEM with updated stiffness properties based on all components with sizing results
- New Failure Methods
- Puck Failure Theory
- Curved (Skin) Local Buckling
Minor New Capabilities
- Auto-generation of panel segments for discretely stiffened models
- Tip deflection limits with ANSYS FEA solver
- Laminates imported from FEM file. Supported for Nastran and ANSYS formats.
- Ability to create Foam and Honeycomb sandwiches as well as 3 stack concepts for unidirectional dominated cores, such as spar caps
- Many enhancements to HyperFEA
- More robust process, won’t duplicate material or property cards in FEM
- Test Solver feature automatically verifies the solver configuration without having to run the project
- Save feature copies project with copies of latest iteration FEM and iteration FEA results
- Solver setup no longer requires manually editing batch files
- Many performance enhancements to six-step composite laminate optimization process on the Composites Form
- Additional HTML Help documentation, Methods documentation and Tutorials
- Usability improvements
- Workspaces renamed to “non-FEA Projects”. Projects renamed to “FEA Projects”.
- Tips added in Sizing form to create Groups and assign Component
- Statistical FEA load processing techniques (2-sigma, 1-sigma, etc.) will use maximum Nxy, Mxy, Qx and Qy for both tension and compression loops. Must be activated through backdoor data options.
Released 2011 July
More Robust FEA Integration
- Imports loads from .op2 FEA output file for a tighter coupling with FEA. The .op2 output file is generally smaller than the .f06 file and HyperSizer imports the FEA 8 times faster using this format.
- Imports and stores loads for very large models with hundreds of thousands of elements and thousands of load sets.
- Increased maximum run decks from 8 to 20.
- Backdoor data flag to limit design-to loads. Now the 2-sigma design-to load for a component will not exceed the peak element load.
Improved composite laminate optimization process
- Unique GSS material selections are available for step 4 of the laminate optimization process. This allows for a separate overwrap materials to be added to the automatically generated discrete laminates.
- Improved CAD interface tab on project sizing form used to map the CAD zone definition to the HyperSizer component definition. This capability is specific to exporting laminate specs to FiberSIM and Catia.
- The laminate sequencing can now be performed using the manufacturing process ID. Two orthotropic materials in the database may be assigned the same manufacturing process ID which will prompt HyperSizer to the material systems as if they are a single ply or manufacturing layer on the tool surface. This is useful for materials that may have reduced properties based manufacturing methods, but are the same physical ply during layup fabrication.
- Laminate sequencing step now returns multiple sequenced designs using the lightest weight laminates for each component.
- Fixed std. deviation calculation and added backdoor data flag to switch between new formulation and original formulation. Default in shipped database template is the new formulation.
- Fixed PIN flags for CBAR element cards with non-specified continuation line. The PIN flags are stored in the database and written to the .cl1 file after a HyperSizer analysis.
Released 2011 May
Major New Capabilities
- Laminate optimization for manufacturability
- Abaqus FEA Integration
- Compression and shear postbuckling analysis methods
- Bolted Joint Analysis Form and CBUSH element import
- New panel concepts, PRSEUS, reinforced core sandwich
- Integrated test database
- Automatic sizing zone definition
- Integrated Help System
Minor New Capabilities
- Additional methods documentation available with install and online
- Improved test data display
- Additional composite failure theories available on laminate analysis form
- Many new graphics functions such as auto creation of plydrop joints, auto creation of FEM joints and auto computing buckling spans.
- Improved element/component picking features while interactively creating components, groups and assemblies.
- Added recent database list under file drop down menu.
- Fixed errors when analyzing sandwich panels with linked facesheets. When facesheets were linked (thickness and material) for a sandwich panel the bottom facesheet would return a component thickness result = 0. This caused problems when analyzing the bottom facesheet from the object loads tab.
- NASA SP-8007 method deactivated for flat panels
- Fixed the superimposed local pressure capability for orthogrd and isogrid panels
Released 2009 October
To download file, right click, then choose "Save Target As" :
8101_HyperSizer - Version 5.8.11 New Features and Software Enhancements 2009-10-28.pptx (File Size 3.3 MB)
Released 2008 May
To download file, right click, then choose "Save Target As" :
hypersizer_version_5.6.38_new_features_and_enhancements.pdf (File Size 3.5 MB)
Released 2008 May
Orthotropic Material Bending Correction Factor is now active
- A common observation in composite analysis is that laminate plies exhibit higher strength in bending than in membrane only loads. That is, if the stress in a ply is caused by laminate bending, that ply will fail at a higher stress/strain than if that stress was caused by laminate membrane loads
- A material based correction factor is now included that will adjust the strength allowables for plies in bending
- The process consists of two steps. First, midplane membrane strain for the laminate is calculated and applied to each ply. Composite analyses are then calculated based on this strain using non-adjusted allowables. Second, ply strains based on combined membrane and bending loads are calculated and composite analyses are calculated using allowables adjusted using the Bending Correction Factor. The reported margin-of-safety is the lower of these two values.
User now has a choice whether HyperSizer will use tension/compression elastic properties
(E1T, E2T vs. E1C, E2C, etc.), depending on the sign of the load, for all strength calculations or to use an average “design” stiffness [ED = (ET + EC) / 2].
- All strength failure modes allowables will continue to use either compression or tension strength allowables (Ftu1, Fcu1, etc.), depending on the load.
- All buckling calculations will continue use compression stiffness properties (E1C, E2C).
User can now select the NASA SP-8007 buckling knockdown factor for global panel buckling of curved panels as an alternative to specifying a static value. HyperSizer will automatically compute the knockdown factor based on r/teff ratio and return this value to the interface.
- All references to ply numbering have been re-ordered to correspond to industry standard ply numbering
- Ply numbering now starts with ply 1 at the bottom with numbers increasing in the positive z direction
- Form indicates (B)ottom and (T)op plies of laminate
- Existing laminates in HyperSizer databases will not need to be changed
- Ply angles can now be typed in (to accommodate angle increments smaller than 0.1°)
- Laminate Editor is now much more intuitive and conforms with Microsoft Windows standards for left click, right click, keyboard shortcuts, etc.
- Click on any column for any ply to select that ply (or drag to select multiple plies)
- Right-click on any ply selection to get options
- Commonly used functions are now included as toolbar buttons
Laminate Analysis Form
- Equivalent Orthotropic G13 and G23 Calculations added.
- Stress Plot/Strain Plot and Margin of Safety Plot now display values at the inner/outer and midplane fibers rather than just a single point at the midplane.
- Stress and Strain Plots include an export to Comma Separated Value (CSV) file.
Right click in Database Explorer Tree to create a new material in a particular family
Right click in the Database Explorer Tree to delete a material
Custom Material Families
- Right click in the tree to access a new Material Family dialog
- Create/delete/rename new material families
- Re-assign materials to different families
The material forms have been reorganized to make them more intuitive
- Material Name fields have been widened so that full material names can be seen
- Isotropic/orthotropic/honeycomb/foam – material properties grouped based on function (e.g. all stiffness properties are now on the same tab)
- All metric and english units and property descriptions are now consistent between data entry, plot, and stress reports, labels and tooltips.
- Commonly used functions are now included as toolbar buttons
Workspace Setup Form
The Setup form is now available for Workspaces. This allows for load sets and load cases to be re-named and workspace units to be set.
Shortcut keys were added to quickly change from one data item to the next or from one load set to the next. For example, if plotting FEM loads, press PageUp/PageDn to go from Nx to Ny to Nxy, etc. Press <Shift>-PageUp/PageDn to go from Load Set 102 to Load Set 103 to Load Set 104, etc.
Project Setup Form
Project Display units added to Options tab
Right click on any text box, dropdown box, option to assign database defaults for FEM Format and Units, project units, Import/Export Options, etc. These database default will be used for any new projects created in this database
Starting with Version 5.3, database default settings can now be imported from one database to another. For future HyperSizer versions, default settings will be imported from one database version to another.
When importing projects or workspaces from one database to another, the user now has the option to import analysis results. In previous HyperSizer versions, analysis results were not imported, requiring the user to re-analyze the project or workspace. Note: This capability will only be available if the source and target database versions are the same.
When copying projects or workspaces within a database, analysis results are copied along with project or workspace setup parameters. In previous HyperSizer versions, analysis results were not copied requiring the user to re-analyze the copied project or workspace.
Efficiency of element based analysis been greatly increased. Speed increases up to a factor of 10 have been reported, depending on the number of elements and number of load cases. The more elements and load cases, the greater the speed increase.
HyperSizer’s security has been updated to the latest Macrovision/FLEXnet licensing.
FLEXnet is the industry standard for IT administration of floating licenses.
Node-locked licenses no longer have issues that require users to be connected to a network to obtain a license.
HyperSizer Version 5.3 is Microsoft Vista Compatible.
If User Access Control (UAC) is turned on, the HyperSizer process with a node-locked license may need to run with Administrative Privilege
Tooltips for all forms can be turned on and off via Preferences | Options.
All major forms can now be re-sized up to full-screen.
Forms will remember their positions and sizes even after the software is closed and re-opened.
Released 2008 March
Stress Reports are automatically generated in Word, to include figures, equations, sample calculations, summary margin-of-safety tables, and table of contents.
Major rewrite has been completed, including reorganization of information.
Stress report generation speed has been increased.
Visual progress indicators have been added. This prevents the software from “locking up” while generating large stress reports.
Sample calculations have been added for all analysis methods. In this capability, the equations for each method are shown and then sample values used in the analysis of your project are included:
For more information and to see a sample stress report, go to: http://www.stressreports.com
Centrally set database default values for all analysis methods. This allows the user to set defaults for all failure method independent of any particular project. In the example shown here, the user has turned composite material strength Hoffman interaction on, and turned all other composite failure analyses off.
Apply values for any component based data (e.g. load factors, buckling knockdowns, failure methods, etc.) from the current component to all components in the current group, all components in the current assembly, all components in the current project, or set the current setting as a database default which can be applied to other projects in the same database.
A backdoor flag option has been added to allow HyperSizer to automatically calculate a curved panel knockdown factor using the process described in NASA publication SP-8007. The knockdown factor calculation can be turned on and off for a project through the backdoor file and will be included in analysis, optimization and the stress reports. This capability will be included in the normal HyperSizer GUI starting in version 5.3.
Corrections or Improvements
Local Pressure Calculation for Uniaxial Stiffened Panels has been improved.
In previous versions, the local moment, shear and deflection between stiffeners due to pressure on the facesheet was not calculated properly for situations where the flange thickness was greater than the skin thickness. This has been corrected and verified against detailed FEA in Version 5.2.16.
A problem was fixed where the HyperSizer GUI became very slow if very large component, element, or grid IDs (>9,000,000) were used in the imported FEM. HyperSizer will now efficiently process FEMs with IDs up to 99,999,999. The speed of the GUI will be the same whether large or small IDs are used.
The Sizing form is now a “Sizeable” window. This removes the problem, especially on the Failure tab, where analysis method names were truncated and not viewable because the window size was too small.
Database Import improvements
- Database default settings can be imported from one database to another.
- When importing from one database to another, analysis results can be imported as long as it is the same database version. In previous HyperSizer Versions, whenever importing from one database to another, all analysis results would be lost requiring the analysis to be re-run by the user.
- A correction was made to the import of some user-defined palettes.
Easier navigation of components/groups/assemblies from the HyperSizer graphics. The user can now switch from one assembly view to the next by pressing a button on the graphics form. In previous versions, to switch assemblies, the user was forced to go to the Sizing form.
Minimum margin of safety is now displayed at the top of the sizing form for every component.
Workspaces are now created from the database tree, rather than manually copied from a template. To create a new workspace, simply click on the Workspace branch of the tree and select “Create Workspace.”
Permissions to the HyperSizer database were fixed to allow the HyperSizer Admin account to save new database defaults.
A problem was fixed that caused an application error when pulling up the Graphics window for the first time for a newly created Workspace.
Released 2008 January
Test Data Driven Reliability Analysis (Stochastic Optimization)
- The new reliability analysis provides more structural integrity (reliability) while also reducing structural weight
- User’s can conveniently go back and forth between traditional deterministic analysis and the reliability analysis to assess margin-of-safety impact of new method
- Based on test data provided in the installed HyperSizer database, and on user entered test data, correlation factors can be established for each unique analysis method
- Two correlation factors are established, one for stochastic data scatter, and one for analysis inaccuracy
- The two correlation factors, per analysis method, can be used for selecting the reliability percentage of a particular analysis/sizing
- This new capability is published in a AIAA Structures, Structural Dynamics & Materials 2005 conference papers
Hundreds of test data cases included with delivered database
Test data validates many HyperSizer failure analyses:
- Composite material failure strength
- Panel buckling
- Honeycomb sandwich
- Bonded joints
- Users can now enter their own test data for structural certification
- Histograms of the test data scatter are automatically graphed
- Reliability Analysis based on test data correlation
User Manual Updates
- HyperSizer Basic Manual (Reference Sections)
- HyperSizer Pro Manual (Detailed Sizing and Analysis Application)
- Reliability and Test Data
- Object Model Programming Manual
Damage Tolerance Residual Strength Sizing
Calculation of Strain Energy Release Rates (SERR) for comparison to critical energy release rates GIc and GIIc (a rapid, non-FEA, Virtual Crack Closure Technique, VCCT, with verification test cases)
- for crack between laminate plies
- for crack between skin and flange of bonded stiffened panel
Released 2007 May
Corrections or Improvements
Correction to orthogrid local pocket buckling to account for facesheet/stiffener interaction
- The interaction of the stiffener with the facesheet of an orthogrid panel has the effect of partially fixing the edges of the facesheet pocket against rotation. This can lead to over-conservative predictions for facesheet local pocket buckling
Fix for import of NASTRAN CBARs
- In some situations, orientation vectors could be incorrectly interpreted from the NASTRAN run-deck if the orientation vector components were entered in scientific format
Released 2007 Apri
Local Buckling Knockdown Factor included on Buckling Tab of the Sizing form
Breakout of individual correction factors for orthotropic lamina material properties. Separate correction factors can now be entered to account for composite ply environmental and manufacturing effects, including:
- Barely Visible Damage (BViD)
- Automatic Fiber Placement (AFP)
- Lamina-Laminate Ply Angle Percentage Correction
- Pre-cure, Co-Cure and Co-Bond Corrections
- Laminate bending correction factor
New Failure Methods
- Sandwich Core Shear Strength Longitudinal/Transverse Interaction
Fsul = Core Longitudinal (ribbon) Shear Strength Allowable
Fsuw = Core Transverse Shear Strength Allowable
Ksscf = Core Shear Strength Correction Factor
- NASA SP-8007 Cylindrical Panel Buckling Method
- Ref: NASA SP-8007, “Buckling of Thin-Walled Circular Cylinders”, Section 4.3
- For simply supported, full cylinders (e.g. fuselage or cylindrical tanks), this method compares very closely, but has the advantage over HyperSizer’s built-in numerical buckling solution of being very efficient and therefore greatly speeding up optimizations that are controlled by global panel buckling
HyperFEMGen Automated Local Mesh Generation
- A new backdoor capability has been developed to automatically create local finite element models (NASTRAN Format) that have consistent applied boundary conditions and loadings to perform independent checks of HyperSizer analyses.
- These local FEMs can be run directly in NASTRAN without modification.
- Local FEMs can be used for:
- Static Analysis
- Local buckling
- Global/panel buckling
- Crippling/Non-linear post buckling
- Features such as holes and cutouts (e.g. windows) can be included in the local mesh
- Concepts currently supported are Bonded I-stiffened, bonded hat and two-sheet stiffened, orthogrid stiffened panels.
Corrections or Improvements
Reads the TEMP(INIT) card from a NASTRAN deck case control to get a non-room temperature reference temperature. This allows HyperSizer to do elevated temperature analysis, where temperature dependent material properties are considered, without introducing thermal stress effects.
Released 2007 February
Provided a backdoor option, “Local Buckling Knockdown Factor” which provides a separate knockdown factor for local buckling failure modes. In previous versions, local buckling failure modes used the same knockdown factor as global buckling failure modes. This feature will be integrated into the Buckling tab of the sizing form in version 4.12.
Corrections or Improvements
Added import of area non-structural masses (NSM) from NASTRAN property cards (PCOMP, PSHELL, etc) into HyperSizer as “Added Weight” on the sizing form Options tab. These non-structural masses are tracked by HyperSizer and exported back to the finite element model for iteration. To import non-structural masses, the option “Import Non-Structural Masses from FEM…” must be selected BEFORE importing the finite element model.
Non-structural masses (or Added Weights) are now by default, not included in weights reported on the Sizing Form, in the Summary Tab, or in the HyperSizer Graphics weight reporting. This behavior can be overridden by setting the backdoor option, “Remove Added Weight for Reporting” to False.
When sizing a structure to a minimum stiffness (i.e. A11, A22, D11, D22, etc. ), corrected the failure criteria to always use the minimum of either tension or compression stiffnesses when calculating the margin of safety. In previous versions, would default to only using the compression based stiffness terms when reporting to the Computed Properties tab and calculating the margin.
Released 2007 January
Corrections or Improvements
Automatically turns off simple BC panel buckling failure modes for panels that include non-simple boundary conditions. These failure modes, if turned on, will now return the code N/A into the Failure Tab Margin of Safety. These failure modes will not affect the sizing.
Correction to stress reports when using All Load Case Details (highest level of detail) when also reporting element based analysis results. A buffer overrun would cause an error and return no results.
Correction to database import code when importing from one 4.10 database to another. In previous versions, there was possibility of data loss for some of the more advanced material and project data during the import procedure.
Correction for “Maximum Principal Stress” metallic failure mode. In some situations, this failure mode would incorrectly return a margin of safety of “-1.0”.
Correction of controlling BUCKLING vs STRENGTH reporting in the “Free Body Diagram Output” section of the FBD tab of the Sizing Form. In previous versions, this would always report STRENGTH as the controlling failure method regardless of the actual failure method.
Released 2006 December
Corrections or Improvements
Correction to import of finite element models with non-english standard units (e.g. mm, Pa, N, etc) that reference different coordinate systems. In Version 4.10.2, the nodes of a model that is specified to be non-english units will not be translated correctly on import.
Released 2006 November
Correctly calculates the reduced local pressure bending effects for the pocket of an orthogrid stiffened panel.
- For stiffened concepts where stiffeners run in the circumferential direction, a large percentage of applied pressure is reacted in hoop force in the stiffeners, however a small portion will be reacted by the bending stiffness of the pockets between stiffeners. This bending stiffness effect is now correctly accounted for as a reduced pressure in the local pressure bending calculation.
Calculates through-thickness, ply-by-ply out-of-plane shear stresses for laminates and sandwiches from the globally applied transverse shear forces, Qx and Qy.
- Introduces a new “Interlaminar Strength” failure interaction equation:
Corrections or Improvements
Automatically turns off flat panel buckling failure modes for curved panels. These failure modes, if turned on, will now return the code N/A into the Failure Tab Margin of Safety. These failure modes will not affect the sizing.
Automatically turns off Panel Level Superimpose Pressure moment and shear effects for curved panels. The assumption is that for curved panels, the pressure will be reacted principally by hoop tension and therefore inappropriate to calculate reaction edge and midspan bending moments and shears.
Reduces the threshold of (Radius / Span) for assuming a panel is “flat” when importing a finite element model. In previous versions, a panel was assumed to be flat if Radius/Span > 50. In Version 4.10.0, a panel is assumed flat for Radius / Span > 10. The user can override the software’s assumption of flat or curved by clicking the “Panel is Curved” checkbox on the Buckling Tab.
Updates the Honeycomb Core Shear Strength calculation to derive the core shear stress from the core thickness + ½ the facesheet thicknesses rather than the full panel height.
Correction to laminate percentage ply based strain allowables where a laminate is hybrid (more than one ply material) or has uneven distribution of ply thicknesses. In previous versions, HyperSizer assumed that all plies have the same thickness when determining the percentage of plies in each direction.
Corrected percentage ply based analysis to assume that woven (fabric) plies contain 50% 0° plies and 50% 90° plies. In previous versions, woven plies were treated the same as tape plies and did not take their biaxial strength into account.
Released 2006 October
Interactively create and re-define components, groups, and assemblies on the FEM using HyperSizer native graphics.
- Create components and move individual elements from one component to another by simply clicking individual elements in the graphics.
- This substantial new capability greatly increases the productivity of FEM and FEA post processing and modification and may free up PATRAN and FEMAP licenses for model building and preprocessing.
Two new isotropic failure criteria
- “Maximum Shearing Strain”
- "Maximum Principal Stress”
Corrections or Improvements
Renamed grid stiffened panel concepts to conform more closely to industry standard nomenclature.
Improvement to thermoelastic formulation of Orthogrid panels. Correctly accounts for the D33 bending-twisting stiffness of 0 and 90 webs.
Corrected sign convention graphic for grid-stiffened panels on the Concepts tab. In the previous version, the z axis was pointing in wrong direction.
Released 2006 September
HyperFEA™: Automated iteration between HyperSizer and a finite element solver.
- This is a fundamental new capability that also includes global FEA response in the sizing optimization process.
- See brochure at HyperFEA®
Re-Designed Project Setup Form:
- Setup tab re-organized to a more intuitive format
- Limit and Ultimate load factors can now be applied to individual load sets.Previously, load factors were only assigned on a component-by-component basis and were assumed to be the same for all load sets
- Multiple load sets can be selected and modified at one time. Previously the user was required to modify one load set at a time
- Load Cases created automatically on import rather than requiring the user to create load cases individually
- Multiple load cases can now be selected, activated, deactivated, or deleted as one unit rather than requiring individual manipulation
Weight/Mass import and export from the FEM
- Import of non-structural masses from the FEA as “Added Weight”
- HyperSizer will read the WTMASS parameter from the FEM and use it when exporting densities and non-structural masses to the updated FEM
- A user choice is supplied for exporting masses in MASS units or WEIGHT Units
User selected reference plane choice for unstiffened laminates and sandwich panels rather than the HyperSizer default reference plane of the midplane of the upper facesheet. This enhancement applies only to panels in the Unstiffened/Sandwich Panel Family.
Improved speed and formatting of Microsoft Word based stress reports
Released 2006 July
New Margin-of-Safety Stress Report
- A new stress report is generated in Word document format.
- This is a fundamental new capability.
- The HTML format will still be available.
- The Word document includes margins-of-safety for all possible combinations of conditions.
- Table of contents, section headers, and graphics are generated automatically.
Element based analysis/sizing
- Analysis and margin-of-safety (MS) reporting on an element-by-element basis for each component
- A table is created in the Word based stress report summarizing the minimum margin of each element of the model, sorted by increasing MS
- Element based margins-of-safety are displayed in the HyperSizer graphics
Support of NASTRAN PCOMP layup definitions for composite materials
- Import of PCOMP FEM data and automatic generation of HyperSizer layups, hybrid laminates, and sandwich panels
- Automatic creation of HyperSizer groups based on PCOMP definitions
- Export of HyperSizer layups into PCOMP FEM data
- As alternative to A,B,D stiffness data defined as MAT2
- Support of NASTRAN PCOMP reduces the time and effort required for initial HyperSizer project setup.
Additional failure criteria:
- Strain based Tsai-Wu with ply based or laminate based strain allowables
- This is in addition to the existing stress based Tsai-Wu
- Directional X and Y core shear strength failure criteria (previous versions returned only the minimum of these two margins of safety)
Support of NASTRAN CBEAM
- Support for the NASTRAN CBEAM element type
Specialized NEi/NASTRAN support
- Highly efficient native binary file I/O for large models and hundreds of load cases
Corrections or Improvements
Cascading coordinate systems (i.e. coordinate systems that reference other coordinate systems) are now properly translated on HyperSizer import of a FEM
Unlimited include file nesting in a finite element model is now handled correctly
HyperSizer database template location is now user-configurable. This allows an organization to locate a template database (for example, with company maintained materials) in a common location from which all users' new databases will be created.
Released 2006 March
Closed cross section beams: Rectangular, circular, and elliptical tubes shapes for metallic and composite materials
Laminate based strain allowables: In addition to the AML (Angle Minus Load) approach, another approach is offered based on A, B, C, D, E polynomial empirical curve fit for strain allowable:
Strain Allowable = A(%0)^2 + B(%0) + C(%45) + D + E(%45/0) + F(%0/45) + G(%45)^2
Corrections or Improvements
Johnson-Euler interaction: Correction for case where buckling and crippling loads are different values
Material only database: Fix for export of database
Object model programming: Completely updated and operational
Released 2005 September
HyperFinder™ automated methods and equations search tool: Searches thousands of pages of technical documentation on specific HyperSizer analytical methods including equations.
Damage tolerance sizing such as open hole tension (OHT), and after impact compression (OHC) both implemented on the ply and on the laminate level. The ply allowables are temperature dependent, and the laminate allowables are both temperature and layup sequence dependent. The user can enter their layup dependent allowables via a table entry format and HyperSizer will generate the plot interactively for verification to the user.
Laminate allowables can be entered as a function of either: % of 0 degree plies, % of 45 degree plies, or % of AML (Angle minus load/longitudinal) plies. With the laminate allowables, the four primary directions 0, 90, 45, and -45 are checked, using a bending moment correction factor of which the standard default value =1.3 can be user changed.
New graphic capabilities such as storing preferred view angles and display format. Standard and advance menus for plotting results. More data types are now available to plot on the FEM.
More descriptive margin-of-safety (MS) reporting on the GUI, such as reporting which failure analyses are missing data, which analyses are out of bounds, which analysis are NA to given loads or optimization choices, etc. The failure tab now displays along with numbers for MS, these alpha string codes.
Freeze an optimization. This permits the software to perform analyses with different criteria, such as adding a loadcase without changing the previous optimized design, HyperSizer reports the MS for these changes without resizing and without requiring the user to manually freeze out each sizing variable’s permutation. This minor capability has turned out to be quite useful.
Data entry checks on the material forms have been added, such as:
Corrections or Improvements
More accurate crippling analysis that includes the effects of bending moments and biaxial loadings. (Includes technical documentation)
More accurate and general pressure bending analysis for panels including beam-column amplification for solving offline from FEA the effects, for instance, of fuel. (Includes technical documentation)
Slight corrections to local buckling for long aspect ratio plates such as web stiffeners
Tension/compression controlling loads passed consistently (along with appropriate tension/compression dependent material properties) to the composite analysis form for interactive ply-by-ply plotting and MS reporting with the failure tab